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The Tudor Period 1485-1603 Timeline link

Tudor finds database link

House of Tudor, 1485-1603
Henry VII 1485-1509 (grandson of Henry V, wife's second husband)
Henry VIII 1509-1547 (Henry VII's second son)
Edward V 1547-1553 (Henry's son by Jane Seymour)
Mary 1553-1558 (Henry's daughter by Queen Catherine)
Elizabeth I 1558-1603 (Henry's daughter by Anne Boleyn)

 

Henry VIII 1509-1547

In 1502, Henry VIII became heir to the English throne. Seven years later he was crowned King of England and quickly married to his dead brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon.

Although Henry himself was no soldier he found success with Wolsey who organised the first French campaign and proved to be an outstanding minister. Defeat of the Scots at Flodden in 1513 added a feather to Henry's cap. However, battle with France ultimately proved expensive and unsuccessful and Wolsey's ascendancy was cut short by Henry's need for a male heir and hence separation from Catherine of Aragon. This was achieved in 1533 against Catherine's wishes, leaving Henry free to marry Anne Boleyn.

The king's primary pursuit was an heir to the throne and it set in motion radical ecclesiastical change. With the help of Wolsey's replacement, Thomas Cromwell, Henry established himself as head of the Church of England and ordered the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Other reforms - such as the creation of the Council of the North and the Household and Exchequer - were also instigated during the 1530s. Within three years he had tired of Anne Boleyn and she was beheaded in 1536, accused of treason and adultery. Jane Seymour became queen and in 1537 produced an heir, Edward VI, who cost Jane her life and proved a sickly child.

Henry's rule was at times merciless and his suppression of dissidents was brutal. But religious change was not inspired by the king's piety, far from it; Henry's obsession was with power and the security of the throne and although the need for divorce tested Henry's allegiance to the Pope, a conversion to Protestantism was never a real prospect. Cromwell fell victim to this when in 1540 - after a fated alliance with the Lutheran Princes and the arrangement of a marriage between the king and Anne of Cleves - conservatism claimed superiority and he too was executed.

The final years of Henry's reign witnessed his physical decline and an increasing desperation to appear all-powerful. The 20-year-old Catharine Howard replaced Anne of Cleves as Henry's wife but she too faced the scaffold accused of adultery. A final marriage to Catherine Parr (despite Henry's physical ruin) was more harmonious although Catherine's religious leanings proved dangerous and might have brought her to the block if it wasn't for Henry's death. Further fruitless wars against Scotland and France emptied the coffers whilst at home the King attempted to play off the conservatives and radicals. Henry's legacy was bewildering - he failed to provide clear instructions regarding the rule of Edward VI and set in motion a chaotic and relentless religious upheaval.

Groats

1509 -26 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Pheon mint mark

2.87g, 26.93mm

1509-26 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Portcullis crowned initial mark

Portrait of Henry VII but name of Henry VIII

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - arrow mint mark
1526-9 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Rose mintmark - Type B - satires in reverse cross ends - Tower mint
1533-42 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - arrow mintmark
1487-8 Henry VIII hammered silver groat (4 pence) - Durham mint
1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Arrow mintmark 1526- 44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - arrow mint mark
1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Arrow mint mark 1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Sunburst mint mark

1532-42 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - arrow mintmark

First period - London, Tower (POSUI)

 

1509-26 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Portcullis crowned initial mark

Portrait of Henry VII but name of Henry VIII

1526-1544 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Lis mintmark 2nd issue

London POSUI

 

1544- 1547 Henry VIII hammered silver groat -3rd issue

London

1509 -26 Henry VIII hammered silver groat 1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Arrow mintmark
1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Rose mint mark 1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Arrow mint mark
Stunning strike of a 1526 -44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - arrow mint mark 1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Arrow mint mark
1495 -8 Henry VIII hammered silver groat 1526-9 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Type B - satires in reverse cross ends
1547-51 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - posthumous issue
1544-7 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Third coinage
1509 -26 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - Pheon mint mark 1495 -8 Henry VIII hammered silver groat
1547-51 Henry VIII hammered silver groat - posthumous issue 1526 - 44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat (4 pence) 2nd coinage - mintmark Lis

1532- 42 AD Henry VIII hammered silver groat - 2nd coinage 2.68g, 25.18mm and a 1272 AD Edward hammered silver farthing 0.32g,9.52mm - Type 30h Obv EDWARDVS REX AN Rev CIVITAS LONDON

1509 Henry VIII hammered silver groat needs straightening to ID type

1526-44 AD Henry VIII hammered silver groat, second profile issue Type G

C in Henric is reversed D

obv HENRIC + VIII + D + E + AGL Z FRANC

rev POSVI DEV + ADITORE MEV

Satires on cross ends

1528 Henry VIII hammered silver groat (4 pence)(c)
1526 AD Henry VIII hammered silver groat (4 pence) and a 14thC long cross 1/4 penny
1526- 44 Henry VIII 2nd Profile issue - London Mint Obverse shows reversed Roman D for C in HENRIC and in FRANC- Laker D hammered silver groat
1526- 44 Henry VIII 2nd coinage Laker E hammered silver groat
   

Half Groats

1526-32 Henry VIII hammered silver halfgroat- cross patonce

Archbishop Warham - WA by shield -Canterbury mint

1526-32 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat WA beside shield- Warham's Uncertain initial mark (Archbishop William Warham)

rev CIVITAS CANTOR - Canterbury mint (111)

 

1526- 32 Henry VIII milled silver half groat - Cross patonce initial mark

WA by shield Archbishop William Warham - Ref JJ North 1802

Obv HENRIC VII DI GRA REX AGL Z FRA

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Canterbury mint

1.26g,19.39mm

2nd coinage 1533-1544 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - TC beside shiled - Archbishop Thomas Cranmer) Inital mark Catherine wheel

Obv HENRIC VII

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Canterbury mint

1.20g, 18.5mm

1554-47Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - Third coinage - spur from shield to inner circle

18.93mm,0.81g

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York mint

1533-44 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - Catherine wheel mint mark

Archbishop Cranmer - TC besides shield

1526-32 Henry VIII hammered silver halfgroat- cross patonce

Archbishop Warham - WA by shield -Canterbury mint

1544-7 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - 3rd coinage

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York mint

1508-14 Henry VIII hammered silver halfgroat - Marlett mint mark

Archbishop Brainbridge issue - keys below shield

 

1526-32 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - Cross patonce mintmark

Archbishop Warham - WA by shield

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Canterbury mint

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat

1526-44 Henry VIII hammmered silver half groat- 2nd coinage - WA by shield Archbishop Warham

CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Canterbury mint

1509-26 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - TW by shield Archbishop Wolsey 1544-7 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - Third coinage

1531-44 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - Archbishop Lee

LE by shield

1531-44 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - LE besides shield - key mint mark

Archbishop Lee

1526-44AD Henry VIII hammered silver half groat 2nd coinage Archb Warham

1.18g, 18.34mm Canterbury mint

1526 Henry VIII hammered half groat - Archb Cranmer (c)

1509- 26 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - first coinage - two arches unjewelled

rev CIVITAS CANTOR (Canterbury mint) POSUI DEUM (Archbishop William Warham)

1.11g, 18.83mm

1526 AD Henery VIII hammered silver half groat Canterbury, Archbishop Warham - WA by shield

1526 - 44 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat, needs straightening to reveal exact type on obverse
1526-44 AD Henry VIII hammered silver groat, second profile issue
1509 - 47 Henry VIII hammered silver groat fragment 1533-44 Henry VIII hammered silver groat fragment

1531-44 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - profile issue

Archb Lee - EL by shield

1544 -7 Henry VIII hammered silver half groat - Third coinage

Farthing

Unknown NEW type - mullet by crown

1509 - 26 Henry VIII hammered silver farthing - Mullet by crown - Long Cross Fourchee, brush hair - Portcullis initial mark - single arched crown

Obv HENRIC DI GRA AGL'

Rev CIVI/TAS/ ****

Halfpenny

1526- 44 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny - Single arched crown - 'Brush' hair

OBV hxDxGxROSAxSIExSPIA

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1526-55 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny - 2nd coinage - Lis mint mark - Type 1Bc ,Brush hair

Obv h'D'G'***A'

London mint

1526- 44 Henry VIII hammered silver halfpenny - 2nd coinage rev cross fourchee - Type 3 single arched crown

Obv *** ROSA xSIEx SPIA

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1533- 56 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny -

Archbishop Thoman Cranmer - TC at sides of bust

OBV hxDxGxROSAxSIExSPIA

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Canterbury mint

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny- 2nd issue, brush hair - plain cross - uncertain type i.m.

Obv hDG ROSA SIE SPIA

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1509-26 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny - Cross fourchee , single arched crown

Obv hE ******

Rev CIVI/TAS EBO/RACI - York mint

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver halfpenny - 'brush' hair - long cross fourchee - 2nd coinage - Type 1 B(f)

Obv + hxDxGxROSAxSIExSPIA'

Rev CIVI/TAS/**

0.33g,11.07mm

1509 -26 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny - single arched crown

1509-26 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny Portcullis Crowned mint mark - 1st issue

Obv HENRIC DI GRA REX AGL

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1509 Henry VIII hammered silver halfpenny - 'Brush hair' bust - Cross fourchee

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

0.27g, 11.07mm

1526- 44 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny - Single arched crown - 'Brush' hair

OBV hxDxGxROSAxSIExSPIA

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1533- 56 Henry VIII hammered silver half penny - Wheel mint mark - 2e

Archbishop Thoman Cranmer - TC at sides of bust

OBV hxDxGxROSAxSIExSPIA

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Casnterbury mint

Sovereign penny

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Duram) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey

1509-23 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - Radiant star

Durham mint

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - TC above shield

Obv CIVI TAS EBO RACI - York mint

1526 - 1544 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign

penny - Star both sides, radiant star Obv only

CD besides shield - Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Duram) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey 1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Duram) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey
1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Duram) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey

1509 -26 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - TD by shield Bishop Thomas Ruthall

Durham mint

0.7g,15.33

Thomas Ruthall (Ruthal, Rowthall) (died 4 February 1523) was an English churchman, administrator and diplomat. He was a leading councillor of Henry VIII of England

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Durham) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey

1509 -47 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny

TD besides shield - Bishop Ruthall - Durham mint

Henry VIII hammmered silver penny - Sovereign type London 0.49g - 15.53 mm

1526 - 1544 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign

penny - Star both sides, radiant star Obv only

CD besides shield - Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Duram) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey

1426-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - 2nd coinage

Obv King enthroned holding orb and sceptre - TW by shield

ArchBp Wolsey - Durham mint

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver one pence - TW by shield - Durham Bp Wolsey 1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver sovereign penny - (Duram) TW by shield Bishop Thomas Wolsey
1509 Henry VII hammered silver penny 1509 - 26 Henry VIII first coinage 'Sovereign type' hammered silver penny

1526-44 Henry VIII hammered silver penny Sovereign type - London mint

0.67g, 16.47mm

Penny

1544-7 Henry VIII hammered silver penny - 3rd coinage, debased issue - facing bust type